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Crazing is the phenomenon that produces a network of fine cracks on the surface of a material, for example in a glaze layer. Crazing frequently precedes fracture in some glassy thermoplastic polymers. As it only takes place under tensile stress, the plane of the crazing corresponds to the stress direction. The effect is visibly distinguishable from other types of fine cracking because the crazing region has different refractive indices from surrounding material. Crazing occurs in regions of high hydrostatic tension, or in regions of very localized yielding, which leads to the formation of interpenetrating microvoids and small fibrils. If an applied tensile load is sufficient, these bridges elongate and break, causing the microvoids to grow and coalesce; as microvoids coalesce, cracks begin to form.
Native Instruments FORM 1.1 (full [CRACKED] Crack)
A craze is different from a crack in that it cannot be felt on the surface and it can continue to support a load. Furthermore, the process of craze growth prior to cracking absorbs fracture energy and effectively increases the fracture toughness of a polymer. The initial energy absorption per square meter in a craze region has been found to be up to several hundred times that of the uncrazed region, but quickly decreases and levels off. Crazes form at highly stressed regions associated with scratches, flaws, stress concentrations and molecular inhomogeneities. Crazes generally propagate perpendicular to the applied tension. Crazing occurs mostly in amorphous, brittle polymers like polystyrene (PS), acrylic (PMMA), and polycarbonate; it is typified by a whitening of the crazed region. The white colour is caused by light-scattering from the crazes.
After modification, the ability of absorbing energy will be increased significantly. For some brittle plastic materials, they can even go through brittle-ductile transformation. Previously, the rubber particles were considered as the main contributor to the increased energy absorption. It was proposed that rubber particles might gather around crack tips under tension and impede the growth of crack, or the contraction of rubber particles induced the decline of glass transformation temperature of the matrix. Nevertheless, experiments showed that the energy absorbed by rubber particles made up only 10% of the total energy, and the decrease of glass transformation temperature caused by rubber was only around 10 K, which was not enough for the matrix to yield at room temperature.
There are many theories that tried to explain the environmental effects upon formation of crazing, among which surface energy reduction and plasticization are widely accepted and well developed. To eliminate the environmental crazing and cracking, many methods like surface coating, stress reduction are adopted. However, due to the complicity of the environmental effects, especially the effects in organic environment, it's hard to find a general solution and remove the effect completely.
For equipment already in service, it is possible to justify the continued use of cracked or otherwise flawed components until such time as repair or replacement can be effected. Such engineering critical assessments can save an operator large amounts of time and money, running into perhaps hundreds of millions of pounds in the case of an oil rig for example. Whilst the Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) test was developed for the characterisation of metals it has also been used to determine the toughness of non-metallics such as weldable plastics.
The CTOD test is one such fracture toughness test that is used when some plastic deformation can occur prior to failure - this allows the tip of a crack to stretch and open, hence 'tip opening displacement'.
There are two basic forms - a square or a rectangular cross section specimen. If the specimen thickness is defined as 'B', the depth (W) will be either B or 2B with a standard length of 4.6W. A notch is machined at the centre and then extended by generating a fatigue crack so that the total 'defect' length is half the depth of the test piece- see Fig.1. A test on a 100mm thick weld will therefore require a specimen measuring 100mm thick, 200mm wide and 920mm long - an expensive operation, the validity of which can only be determined once the test has been completed.
The test is performed by placing the specimen into three point bending and measuring the amount of crack opening. This is done by means of a strain gauge attached to a clip placed between two accurately positioned knife edges at the mouth of the machined notch (Fig.2)
As bending proceeds, the crack tip plastically deforms until a critical point is reached when the crack has opened sufficiently to initiate a cleavage crack. This may lead to either partial or complete failure of the specimen. The test may be performed at some minimum temperature eg the minimum design temperature or, more rarely, at a range of temperatures.
Since the length of the crack and the opening at the mouth of the notch are known it is a simple matter to calculate the crack tip opening by simple geometry. Whilst the test is in progress the results are recorded automatically on a load/displacement chart (Fig. 4). This illustrates the various shapes of curve that may be produced - (a) is a test where the test piece has fractured in a brittle manner with little or no plastic deformation. (b) exhibits a 'pop-in' where the brittle crack initiates but only propagates a short distance before it is arrested in tougher material - this may occur several times giving the curve a saw tooth appearance or after this one pop-in deformation may continue in a ductile manner as in (c) which shows completely plastic behaviour.
Two depressions each side of the sample can often be seen where this compression has been carried out. The fatigue cracking itself should be carried out using a low stress range. The use of high stresses to speed up the fatigue cracking process can result in a large plastically deformed area ahead of the fatigue crack and this will invalidate the results of the test.
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